The term “Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)” refers to the tight conjoining of and coordination between computational and physical entities. In CPS, computing, communication, and control capabilities are converged with all types of objects and structures in the physical world. Scientific applications with enormous societal impact would be available by understanding such capabilities and their interactions. Research advances in CPS promise to infuse our world with systems that respond more quickly and predictably to emergencies in more precise and highly efficient ways. CPS will enable large-scale and distributed coordination and enhance human capabilities to interact with physical entities. CPS will form the foundation for a wide variety of science domains and would enable scientific advances by providing a new paradigm for research. It is said that as the Internet has transformed how humans interact and communicate with each other, CPS will transform how we monitor and interact with (and possibly control) the physical world around us. Advances in CPS research are expected to have a major impact both in scientific development and economic payoffs. It is generally believed that CPS science will emerge as a critical component that is essential for national competitiveness.